职称英语_综合类_综合(A)_历年真题_职称英语综合类(A级)真题3_3

时间: 2020-08-22 20:38 来源: 网络 作者: 无忧题库


1. 共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices

1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech-
nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would
run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there-
fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen
for many years,and continues to drop.
2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,
they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super-
markets get bigger,the prices get lower.
3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro-
ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever
has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to
growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000
global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.
4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn-
panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger
portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger
and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now
come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z
portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.
5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to
change the trend.
Buyers like bigger portions because they think they have got___________. A:their workforce B:huge portions C:large quantities D:their money E:a good bargain F: minor brands
答案:E
解析:文章第一段的主题句是第一句。这段主要讲食物价格下降的原因是生产和分配技术 的发展。
文章第二段主要讲的是超级市场因为规模大,能引进先进技术,故能提供低价格的 商品。
由文章第三段主题句“Huge retail companies...can put pressure on producers to cut theirmargins.”可知,超级零售商能迫使生产商降低商品价格。
文章第四段讲的是,食品公司给顾客提供每份量大的商品,能很容易使顾客感觉到他 们得到了一个大的折扣,这样顾客会买更多的商品。因此每份量大的食品价格便宜。
文章第二段提到“And their size allows them to buy in bulk.”其中in bulk = in large quantities。
文章第三段提到“As a result, some producers have had to make cuts."make cuts的意思 是“降价”。
文章第三段提到“Unilever...dropped lots of its minor brands...”由此可知答案为F。
文章第四段提到“Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.”其中a better deal = a good bargain。



2. 共用题干 In Sports,Red is the Winning Color

When opponents of a game are equally matched,the team dressed in red is more likely to win,accord-
ing to a new study.
British anthropologists Russell Hill and Robert Barton of the University of Durham reached that conclu-
sion by studying the outcomes of one-on-one boxing,tae kwon do,Greco-Roman-wresting,and freestyle-
wrestling matches at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens,Greece.
In each event Olympic staff randomly assigned red or blue clothing or body protection to competitors.
When otherwise equally matched with their opponent in fitness and skill,athletes wearing red were more
likely to win the bout.
"Where there was a large point difference一presumably because one contestant was far superior to the
other一color had no effect on the outcome,"Barton said."Where there was a small point difference,the
effect of color was sufficient to tip the balance."
In equally matched bouts,the preponderance of red wins was great enough that it could not be attributed to
chance,the anthropologists say.Hill and Barton found similar results in a review of the colors worn at the
Euro 2004 international soccer tournament.Their report will be published in tomorrow's issue of the journal
Nature.
Joanna Setchell,a primate researcher at the University of Cambridge in England,has found similar
results in nature.Her work with the large African monkeys known as mandrills shows that red coloration
gives males an advantage when it comes to mating.
The finding that red also has an advantage in human sporting events does not surprise her,adding that
"the idea of the study is very clever."
Hill and Barton got the idea for their study out of a mutual interest in the evolution of sexual signals in
primates一“red seems to be the color,across species,that signals male dominance and testosterone levels,"
Barton said.
For example,studies by Setchell,the Cambridge primate researcher,show that dominant male man-
drills have increased red coloration in their faces and rumps. Another study by other scientists shows that red
plastic rings experimentally placed on the legs of male zebra finches increase the birds'dominance.
Barton said he and Hill speculated that"there might be a similar effect in humans.And if so,it could
be apparent in sporting contests."
The pair say their results indicate that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of humans'
response to color.
Setchell,the primatologist,agrees."As Hill and Barton say,humans redden when we are angry and
pale when we're scared.These are very important signals to other individuals,"she said.
The advantage of red may be intuitively known,judging from the prevalence of red uniforms in sports一
"though it is clearly not very widely appreciated,on a conscious level at least,"Barton said.
He adds that the finding of red's advantage might have implications for regulations that govern sporting
attire.In the Olympic matches he surveyed for the new study;for example,it is possible some medal winners
may have reached the pedestal with an unintended advantage.
"That is the implication,though we cannot say that it made the difference in any specific case,"Barton
said.
Meanwhile,Setchell noted一tongue-in-cheek一that a red advantage may not be limited to sports.
"Going by the recent U.S.election results,red is indeed quite successful,"she said.
Hill and Barton believe athletes in red are more likely to win. A:Right B:Wrong C:Not mentioned
答案:B
解析:文章第一段提到“当竞争者实力相当时,穿红色队服的队更可能获胜。”又根据文章第 二段中“…Russell Hill and Robert Barton...reached that conclusion by studying the outcomes of...",可知答案为A。
根据文章第八段中“Hill and Barton got the idea for their study out of a mutual interest in the evolution of sexual signals in primates”可知答案为A。
根据文章第六段第二句话“Her work with the large African monkeys known as mandrills shows that red coloration gives males an advantage when it comes to mating.”可知答案为B。
根据文章第九段第二句话中“red plastic rings experimentally placed on the legs of male zebra finches increase the birds' dominance”可知,对于斑胸草雀来说红色是一种优势,因此答案 为B。
文章第九段最后一句话提到“红色的塑料圈套在雄性斑胸草雀腿上”,并没有提到是否 要永久套在它腿上。故答案为C。
根据文章第三段的内容可知,当竞争者水平差别较大时,衣服是否为红色没起多大作 用;当竞争者水平差不多时,红色衣服起的作用比较大。
根据文章内容可知,红色在比赛中可能会有很大的作用,但全文并没提到运动员反对 运动制服规则。



3. 共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices

1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech-
nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would
run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there-
fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen
for many years,and continues to drop.
2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,
they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super-
markets get bigger,the prices get lower.
3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro-
ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever
has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to
growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000
global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.
4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn-
panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger
portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger
and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now
come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z
portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.
5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to
change the trend.
Besides cutting its workforce,Unilever also abandoned its__________. A:their workforce B:huge portions C:large quantities D:their money E:a good bargain F: minor brands
答案:F
解析:文章第一段的主题句是第一句。这段主要讲食物价格下降的原因是生产和分配技术 的发展。
文章第二段主要讲的是超级市场因为规模大,能引进先进技术,故能提供低价格的 商品。
由文章第三段主题句“Huge retail companies...can put pressure on producers to cut theirmargins.”可知,超级零售商能迫使生产商降低商品价格。
文章第四段讲的是,食品公司给顾客提供每份量大的商品,能很容易使顾客感觉到他 们得到了一个大的折扣,这样顾客会买更多的商品。因此每份量大的食品价格便宜。
文章第二段提到“And their size allows them to buy in bulk.”其中in bulk = in large quantities。
文章第三段提到“As a result, some producers have had to make cuts."make cuts的意思 是“降价”。
文章第三段提到“Unilever...dropped lots of its minor brands...”由此可知答案为F。
文章第四段提到“Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.”其中a better deal = a good bargain。



4. 共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices

1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech-
nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would
run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there-
fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen
for many years,and continues to drop.
2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,
they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super-
markets get bigger,the prices get lower.
3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro-
ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever
has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to
growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000
global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.
4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn-
panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger
portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger
and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now
come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z
portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.
5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to
change the trend.
Big supermarkets can offer food at lower prices because they can buy in__________. A:their workforce B:huge portions C:large quantities D:their money E:a good bargain F: minor brands
答案:C
解析:文章第一段的主题句是第一句。这段主要讲食物价格下降的原因是生产和分配技术 的发展。
文章第二段主要讲的是超级市场因为规模大,能引进先进技术,故能提供低价格的 商品。
由文章第三段主题句“Huge retail companies...can put pressure on producers to cut theirmargins.”可知,超级零售商能迫使生产商降低商品价格。
文章第四段讲的是,食品公司给顾客提供每份量大的商品,能很容易使顾客感觉到他 们得到了一个大的折扣,这样顾客会买更多的商品。因此每份量大的食品价格便宜。
文章第二段提到“And their size allows them to buy in bulk.”其中in bulk = in large quantities。
文章第三段提到“As a result, some producers have had to make cuts."make cuts的意思 是“降价”。
文章第三段提到“Unilever...dropped lots of its minor brands...”由此可知答案为F。
文章第四段提到“Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.”其中a better deal = a good bargain。



5. 共用题干 In Sports,Red is the Winning Color

When opponents of a game are equally matched,the team dressed in red is more likely to win,accord-
ing to a new study.
British anthropologists Russell Hill and Robert Barton of the University of Durham reached that conclu-
sion by studying the outcomes of one-on-one boxing,tae kwon do,Greco-Roman-wresting,and freestyle-
wrestling matches at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens,Greece.
In each event Olympic staff randomly assigned red or blue clothing or body protection to competitors.
When otherwise equally matched with their opponent in fitness and skill,athletes wearing red were more
likely to win the bout.
"Where there was a large point difference一presumably because one contestant was far superior to the
other一color had no effect on the outcome,"Barton said."Where there was a small point difference,the
effect of color was sufficient to tip the balance."
In equally matched bouts,the preponderance of red wins was great enough that it could not be attributed to
chance,the anthropologists say.Hill and Barton found similar results in a review of the colors worn at the
Euro 2004 international soccer tournament.Their report will be published in tomorrow's issue of the journal
Nature.
Joanna Setchell,a primate researcher at the University of Cambridge in England,has found similar
results in nature.Her work with the large African monkeys known as mandrills shows that red coloration
gives males an advantage when it comes to mating.
The finding that red also has an advantage in human sporting events does not surprise her,adding that
"the idea of the study is very clever."
Hill and Barton got the idea for their study out of a mutual interest in the evolution of sexual signals in
primates一“red seems to be the color,across species,that signals male dominance and testosterone levels,"
Barton said.
For example,studies by Setchell,the Cambridge primate researcher,show that dominant male man-
drills have increased red coloration in their faces and rumps. Another study by other scientists shows that red
plastic rings experimentally placed on the legs of male zebra finches increase the birds'dominance.
Barton said he and Hill speculated that"there might be a similar effect in humans.And if so,it could
be apparent in sporting contests."
The pair say their results indicate that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of humans'
response to color.
Setchell,the primatologist,agrees."As Hill and Barton say,humans redden when we are angry and
pale when we're scared.These are very important signals to other individuals,"she said.
The advantage of red may be intuitively known,judging from the prevalence of red uniforms in sports一
"though it is clearly not very widely appreciated,on a conscious level at least,"Barton said.
He adds that the finding of red's advantage might have implications for regulations that govern sporting
attire.In the Olympic matches he surveyed for the new study;for example,it is possible some medal winners
may have reached the pedestal with an unintended advantage.
"That is the implication,though we cannot say that it made the difference in any specific case,"Barton
said.
Meanwhile,Setchell noted一tongue-in-cheek一that a red advantage may not be limited to sports.
"Going by the recent U.S.election results,red is indeed quite successful,"she said.
Many athletes oppose the new regulations on sports uniforms. A:Right B:Wrong C:Not mentioned
答案:C
解析:文章第一段提到“当竞争者实力相当时,穿红色队服的队更可能获胜。”又根据文章第 二段中“…Russell Hill and Robert Barton...reached that conclusion by studying the outcomes of...",可知答案为A。
根据文章第八段中“Hill and Barton got the idea for their study out of a mutual interest in the evolution of sexual signals in primates”可知答案为A。
根据文章第六段第二句话“Her work with the large African monkeys known as mandrills shows that red coloration gives males an advantage when it comes to mating.”可知答案为B。
根据文章第九段第二句话中“red plastic rings experimentally placed on the legs of male zebra finches increase the birds' dominance”可知,对于斑胸草雀来说红色是一种优势,因此答案 为B。
文章第九段最后一句话提到“红色的塑料圈套在雄性斑胸草雀腿上”,并没有提到是否 要永久套在它腿上。故答案为C。
根据文章第三段的内容可知,当竞争者水平差别较大时,衣服是否为红色没起多大作 用;当竞争者水平差不多时,红色衣服起的作用比较大。
根据文章内容可知,红色在比赛中可能会有很大的作用,但全文并没提到运动员反对 运动制服规则。



6. 共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices

1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech-
nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would
run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there-
fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen
for many years,and continues to drop.
2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,
they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super-
markets get bigger,the prices get lower.
3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro-
ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever
has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to
growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000
global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.
4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn-
panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger
portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger
and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now
come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z
portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.
5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to
change the trend.
Paragraph 4 ___________ A:Huge Retailers Force Producers to Cut Costs B:Consumers Like Supermarkets C:Technology Helps Reduce Food Prices D:Food Comes Cheaper in Larger Portions E:Chain Stores Provide Better Service F:Bigger Sunermarkets Offer Lower Prices
答案:D
解析:文章第一段的主题句是第一句。这段主要讲食物价格下降的原因是生产和分配技术 的发展。
文章第二段主要讲的是超级市场因为规模大,能引进先进技术,故能提供低价格的 商品。
由文章第三段主题句“Huge retail companies...can put pressure on producers to cut theirmargins.”可知,超级零售商能迫使生产商降低商品价格。
文章第四段讲的是,食品公司给顾客提供每份量大的商品,能很容易使顾客感觉到他 们得到了一个大的折扣,这样顾客会买更多的商品。因此每份量大的食品价格便宜。
文章第二段提到“And their size allows them to buy in bulk.”其中in bulk = in large quantities。
文章第三段提到“As a result, some producers have had to make cuts."make cuts的意思 是“降价”。
文章第三段提到“Unilever...dropped lots of its minor brands...”由此可知答案为F。
文章第四段提到“Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.”其中a better deal = a good bargain。



7. 共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices

1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech-
nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would
run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there-
fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen
for many years,and continues to drop.
2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,
they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super-
markets get bigger,the prices get lower.
3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro-
ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever
has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to
growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000
global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.
4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn-
panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger
portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger
and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now
come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z
portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.
5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to
change the trend.
Paragraph 3 ___________ A:Huge Retailers Force Producers to Cut Costs B:Consumers Like Supermarkets C:Technology Helps Reduce Food Prices D:Food Comes Cheaper in Larger Portions E:Chain Stores Provide Better Service F:Bigger Sunermarkets Offer Lower Prices
答案:A
解析:文章第一段的主题句是第一句。这段主要讲食物价格下降的原因是生产和分配技术 的发展。
文章第二段主要讲的是超级市场因为规模大,能引进先进技术,故能提供低价格的 商品。
由文章第三段主题句“Huge retail companies...can put pressure on producers to cut theirmargins.”可知,超级零售商能迫使生产商降低商品价格。
文章第四段讲的是,食品公司给顾客提供每份量大的商品,能很容易使顾客感觉到他 们得到了一个大的折扣,这样顾客会买更多的商品。因此每份量大的食品价格便宜。
文章第二段提到“And their size allows them to buy in bulk.”其中in bulk = in large quantities。
文章第三段提到“As a result, some producers have had to make cuts."make cuts的意思 是“降价”。
文章第三段提到“Unilever...dropped lots of its minor brands...”由此可知答案为F。
文章第四段提到“Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.”其中a better deal = a good bargain。



8. 共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices

1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech-
nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would
run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there-
fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen
for many years,and continues to drop.
2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,
they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super-
markets get bigger,the prices get lower.
3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro-
ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever
has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to
growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000
global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.
4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn-
panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger
portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger
and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now
come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z
portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.
5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to
change the trend.
Paragraph 2__________ A:Huge Retailers Force Producers to Cut Costs B:Consumers Like Supermarkets C:Technology Helps Reduce Food Prices D:Food Comes Cheaper in Larger Portions E:Chain Stores Provide Better Service F:Bigger Sunermarkets Offer Lower Prices
答案:F
解析:文章第一段的主题句是第一句。这段主要讲食物价格下降的原因是生产和分配技术 的发展。
文章第二段主要讲的是超级市场因为规模大,能引进先进技术,故能提供低价格的 商品。
由文章第三段主题句“Huge retail companies...can put pressure on producers to cut theirmargins.”可知,超级零售商能迫使生产商降低商品价格。
文章第四段讲的是,食品公司给顾客提供每份量大的商品,能很容易使顾客感觉到他 们得到了一个大的折扣,这样顾客会买更多的商品。因此每份量大的食品价格便宜。
文章第二段提到“And their size allows them to buy in bulk.”其中in bulk = in large quantities。
文章第三段提到“As a result, some producers have had to make cuts."make cuts的意思 是“降价”。
文章第三段提到“Unilever...dropped lots of its minor brands...”由此可知答案为F。
文章第四段提到“Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.”其中a better deal = a good bargain。



9. 共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices

1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech-
nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would
run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there-
fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen
for many years,and continues to drop.
2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,
they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super-
markets get bigger,the prices get lower.
3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro-
ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever
has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to
growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000
global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.
4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn-
panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger
portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger
and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now
come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z
portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.
5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to
change the trend.
Some food producers have reduced__________. A:their workforce B:huge portions C:large quantities D:their money E:a good bargain F: minor brands
答案:D
解析:文章第一段的主题句是第一句。这段主要讲食物价格下降的原因是生产和分配技术 的发展。
文章第二段主要讲的是超级市场因为规模大,能引进先进技术,故能提供低价格的 商品。
由文章第三段主题句“Huge retail companies...can put pressure on producers to cut theirmargins.”可知,超级零售商能迫使生产商降低商品价格。
文章第四段讲的是,食品公司给顾客提供每份量大的商品,能很容易使顾客感觉到他 们得到了一个大的折扣,这样顾客会买更多的商品。因此每份量大的食品价格便宜。
文章第二段提到“And their size allows them to buy in bulk.”其中in bulk = in large quantities。
文章第三段提到“As a result, some producers have had to make cuts."make cuts的意思 是“降价”。
文章第三段提到“Unilever...dropped lots of its minor brands...”由此可知答案为F。
文章第四段提到“Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.”其中a better deal = a good bargain。



10. 共用题干 How Technology Pushes Down Prices

1 Prices have fallen in the food business because of advances in food production and distribution tech-
nology.Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances.People who predicted that the world would
run out of food were wrong. We are producing more and more food with less and less capital.Food is there-
fore more plentiful and cheaper than it has ever been.Spending on food compared with other goods has fallen
for many years,and continues to drop.
2 Supermarkets have helped push down prices mainly because of their scale.Like any big business,
they can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk.As super-
markets get bigger,the prices get lower.
3 Huge retail companies such as Wal-Mart have tremendous power and they can put pressure on pro-
ducers to cut their margins.As a result,some producers have had to make cuts.In recent years,Unilever
has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of its minor brands as part of its"path to
growth"strategy.Cadbury has shut nearly 20 per cent of its 133 factories and cut 10 per cent of its 55,000
global workforce.These cuts help keep costs down,and the price of food stays low.
4 Does cheap food make people unhealthy?Cheap food may encourage people to eat more.Food corn-
panies certainly think that giving people more food for their money makes them buy more.Giving people bigger
portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.That is why portions have got larger
and larger. In America,soft drinks came in 80z(225 g)cans in the past,then 120z(350g),and now
come in 200z(550g)cans.If a company can sell you an 80z portion for$7,they can sell you a 120z
portion for$8.The only extra cost to the company is the food,which probably costs 25 cents.
5 Now companies are under pressure to stop selling bigger portions for less money.But it is hard to
change the trend.
Paragraph 1_________ A:Huge Retailers Force Producers to Cut Costs B:Consumers Like Supermarkets C:Technology Helps Reduce Food Prices D:Food Comes Cheaper in Larger Portions E:Chain Stores Provide Better Service F:Bigger Sunermarkets Offer Lower Prices
答案:C
解析:文章第一段的主题句是第一句。这段主要讲食物价格下降的原因是生产和分配技术 的发展。
文章第二段主要讲的是超级市场因为规模大,能引进先进技术,故能提供低价格的 商品。
由文章第三段主题句“Huge retail companies...can put pressure on producers to cut theirmargins.”可知,超级零售商能迫使生产商降低商品价格。
文章第四段讲的是,食品公司给顾客提供每份量大的商品,能很容易使顾客感觉到他 们得到了一个大的折扣,这样顾客会买更多的商品。因此每份量大的食品价格便宜。
文章第二段提到“And their size allows them to buy in bulk.”其中in bulk = in large quantities。
文章第三段提到“As a result, some producers have had to make cuts."make cuts的意思 是“降价”。
文章第三段提到“Unilever...dropped lots of its minor brands...”由此可知答案为F。
文章第四段提到“Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal.”其中a better deal = a good bargain。




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