职称英语_理工类_理工(A)_知识点精做_四、阅读理解_8

时间: 2020-08-23 20:38 来源: 网络 作者: 无忧题库


1. 共用题干 第一篇

Trying to Find a Partner

One of the most striking findings of a recent pol!in the UK is that of the people
interviewed,one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a
family with.
Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?
Does modern life really make it harder to fail in love?Or are we making it harder for
ourselves?
It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from
relationships.Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man
doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.
But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means
that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.
In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days,Only a few generations
ago, your choice of soulmate(心上人)was constrained(限制)by geography, social convention
and family tradition.Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially
arranged.
Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain
surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening.When the world is your oyster(牡蛎),
you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.
But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint:
the tyranny of choice.
The expectations of partners are inflated(提高)to an unmanageable degree: good looks,
impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks:There is no room for error in the
first impression.
We think that a relationship can be perfect.If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to
protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emolional labor needed
to build a strong relationship.Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of
housing and child-rearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life
partnership.
The word"sustain"(paragraph 2)could be best replaced by A:"reduce". B:"shake". C:"maintain". D:"weaken".
答案:C
解析:



2. 共用题干 第三篇

Mobile Phones : Are They about to Transform Our Lives?

We love them so much that some of us sleep with them under the pillow,yet we are
increasingly concerned that we cannot escape their electronic reach.We use them to
convey our most intimate secrets,yet we worry that they are a threat to our privacy.We
rely on them more than the Internet to cope with modern life,yet many of us don't believe
advertisements saying we need more advanced services.
Sweeping aside the doubts that many people feel about the benefits of new third
generation phones and fears over the health effects of phone masts(天线竿),a recent
report claims that the long-term effects of new mobile technologies will be entirely positive so
long as the public can be convinced to make use of them. Research about users of mobile
phones reveals that the mobile has already moved beyond being a mere practical
communications tool to become the backbone(支柱)of modern social life,from love affairs
to friendship to work.One female teacher,32,told the researchers:"I love my phone.It's
my friend."
The close relationship between user and phone is most pronounced among teenagers,
the report says,who regard their mobiles as an expression of their identity.This is partly
because mobiles are seen as being beyond the control of parents.But the researchers
suggest that another reason may be that mobiles,especially text messaging,are seen as a
way of overcoming shyness."Texting is often used for apologies,to excuse lateness or to
communicate other things that make us uncomfortable,"the report says.The impact of
phones,however,has been local rather than global,supporting existing friendships and
networks,rather than opening users to a new broader community.Even the language of
texting in one area can be incomprehensible to anybody from another area.
Among the most important benefits of using mobile phones,the report claims,will be a
vastly improved mobile infrastructure(基础设施),providing gains throughout the economy,
and the provision of a more sophisticated location-based services for users.The report calls
on government to put more effort into the delivery of services by mobile phone,with
suggestions including public transport and traffic information and doctors' text messages to
remind patients of appointments."I love that idea,"one user said in an interview."It would
mean I wouldn't have to write a hundred messages to myself."
There are many other possibilities.At a recent trade fair in Sweden,a mobile
navigation product was launched.When the user enters a destination,a route is
automatically downloaded to their mobile and presented by voice,pictures and maps as they
drive. In future , these devices will also be able to plan around congestion(交通堵塞)and
road works in real time.Third generation phones will also allow for remote monitoring of
patients by doctors. In Britain scientists are developing an asthma(哮喘)management
solution,using mobiles to detect early signs of an attack.
The navigation product launched in Sweden is helpful to drivers because it can A:suggest the best route to get to a place. B:download maps of the area. C:tell them which roads are congested. D:show them how to avoid road works.
答案:A
解析:



3. 共用题干 第一篇

Trying to Find a Partner

One of the most striking findings of a recent pol!in the UK is that of the people
interviewed,one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a
family with.
Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?
Does modern life really make it harder to fail in love?Or are we making it harder for
ourselves?
It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from
relationships.Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man
doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.
But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means
that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.
In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days,Only a few generations
ago, your choice of soulmate(心上人)was constrained(限制)by geography, social convention
and family tradition.Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially
arranged.
Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain
surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening.When the world is your oyster(牡蛎),
you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.
But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint:
the tyranny of choice.
The expectations of partners are inflated(提高)to an unmanageable degree: good looks,
impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks:There is no room for error in the
first impression.
We think that a relationship can be perfect.If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to
protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emolional labor needed
to build a strong relationship.Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of
housing and child-rearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life
partnership.
Which of the following was NOT a constraint on one's choice of soulmate in the old days? A:The health condition of his or her grandmother. B:The geographical environment. C:The social convention. D:The family tradition.
答案:A
解析:



4. 共用题干 第一篇

Trying to Find a Partner

One of the most striking findings of a recent pol!in the UK is that of the people
interviewed,one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a
family with.
Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?
Does modern life really make it harder to fail in love?Or are we making it harder for
ourselves?
It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from
relationships.Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man
doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.
But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means
that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.
In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days,Only a few generations
ago, your choice of soulmate(心上人)was constrained(限制)by geography, social convention
and family tradition.Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially
arranged.
Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain
surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening.When the world is your oyster(牡蛎),
you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.
But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint:
the tyranny of choice.
The expectations of partners are inflated(提高)to an unmanageable degree: good looks,
impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks:There is no room for error in the
first impression.
We think that a relationship can be perfect.If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to
protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emolional labor needed
to build a strong relationship.Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of
housing and child-rearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life
partnership.
Which of the following is NOT expected of a partner according to this passage? A:Good looks. B:An impressive career. C:A high salary. D:A fine sense of humor.
答案:D
解析:



5. 共用题干 第三篇

The Science of the Future

Until recently,the"science of the future"was supposed to be electronics and
artificial intelligence.Today it seems more and more likely that the next great
breakthroughs in technology will be brought through a combination of those two sciences
with organic chemistry and genetic engineering.This combination is the science of
biotechnology.
Organic chemistry enables us to produce marvelous synthetic(合成的)materials.
However,it is still difficult to manufacture anything that has the capacity of wool to conserve
heat and also to absorb moisture.Nothing that we have been able to produce so far comes
anywhere near the combination of strength,lightness and flexibility that we find in the bodies
of ordinary insects.
Nevertheless,scientists in the laboratory have already succeeded in"growing"a
material that has many of the characteristics of human skin.The next step may well be
"biotech hearts and eyes"which can replace diseased organs in human beings.These will
not be rejected by the body,as is the case with organs from humans.
The application of biotechnology to energy production seems even more promising.In
1 996 the famous science-fiction writer,Arthur C. Clarke,many of whose previous
predictions have come true,said that we may soon be able to develop remarkably cheap
and renewable sources of energy.Some of these power sources will be biological.Clarke
and others have warned us repeatedly that sooner or later we will have to give up our
dependence on non-renewable power sources.Coal,oil and gas are indeed convenient.
However,using them also means creating dangerously high levels of pollution.It will be
impossible to meet the growing demand for energy without increasing that pollution to
catastrophic(灾难性的)levels unless we develop power sources that are both cheaper and
cleaner.
It is attempting to think that biotechnology or some other"science of the future"can
solve our problems.Before we surrender to that temptation we should remember nuclear
power.Only a few generations ago it seemed to promise limitless,cheap and safe energy.
Today those promises lie buried in a concrete grave in a place called Chernobyl,in the
Ukraine.Biotechnology is unlikely,however,to break its promises in quite the same or
such a dangerous way.
Organic chemistry helps to produce materials that are A:as good as wool. B:as good as an insect's body. C:not as good as natural materials. D:better than natural materials.
答案:C
解析:



6. 共用题干 第一篇

Technology Transfer in Germany

When it comes to translating basic research into industrial success,few nations can
match Germany.Since the 1940s,the nation's vast industrial base has been fed with a
constant stream of new ideas and expertise from science.And though German prosperity
(繁荣)has faltered(衰退)over the past decade because of the huge cost of unifying east
and west as well as the global economic decline , it still has an enviable(令人羡慕的)
record for turning ideas into profit.
Much of the reason for that success is the Fraunhofer Society,a network of research
institutes that exists solely to solve industrial problems and create sought-after technologies.
But today the Fraunhofer institutes have competition.Universities are taking an ever larger r
ole in technology transfer,and technology parks are springing up all over.These efforts
are being complemented by the federal programmes for pumping money into start-up companies,
Such a strategy may sound like a recipe for economic success,but it is not without its
critics.These people worry that favouring applied research will mean neglecting basic
science,eventually starving industry of fresh ideas.If every scientist starts thinking like an
entrepreneur(企业家),the argument goes , then the traditional principles of university
research being curiosity-driven,free and widely available will suffer.Others claim that
many of the programmes to promote technology transfer are a waste of money because half
the small businesses that are promoted are bound to go bankrupt within a few years.
While this debate continues,new ideas flow at a steady rate from Germany's research
networks,which bear famous names such as Helmholtz,Max Planck and Leibniz.Yet it is the
fourth network,the Fraunhofer Society,that plays the greatest role in technology transfer.
Founded in 1949,the Fraunhofer Society is now Europe's largest organisation for
applied technology,and has 59 institutes employing 12,000 people.It continues to grow.
Last year,it swallowed up the Heinrich Hertz Institute for Communication Technology in
Berlin.Today,there are even Fraunhofers in the U.S. and Asia.
Which of the following is NOT true of traditional university research? A:It is free. B:It is profit-driven. C:It is widely available. D:It is curiosity-driven,
答案:B
解析:



7. 共用题干 第一篇

Technology Transfer in Germany

When it comes to translating basic research into industrial success,few nations can
match Germany.Since the 1940s,the nation's vast industrial base has been fed with a
constant stream of new ideas and expertise from science.And though German prosperity
(繁荣)has faltered(衰退)over the past decade because of the huge cost of unifying east
and west as well as the global economic decline , it still has an enviable(令人羡慕的)
record for turning ideas into profit.
Much of the reason for that success is the Fraunhofer Society,a network of research
institutes that exists solely to solve industrial problems and create sought-after technologies.
But today the Fraunhofer institutes have competition.Universities are taking an ever larger r
ole in technology transfer,and technology parks are springing up all over.These efforts
are being complemented by the federal programmes for pumping money into start-up companies,
Such a strategy may sound like a recipe for economic success,but it is not without its
critics.These people worry that favouring applied research will mean neglecting basic
science,eventually starving industry of fresh ideas.If every scientist starts thinking like an
entrepreneur(企业家),the argument goes , then the traditional principles of university
research being curiosity-driven,free and widely available will suffer.Others claim that
many of the programmes to promote technology transfer are a waste of money because half
the small businesses that are promoted are bound to go bankrupt within a few years.
While this debate continues,new ideas flow at a steady rate from Germany's research
networks,which bear famous names such as Helmholtz,Max Planck and Leibniz.Yet it is the
fourth network,the Fraunhofer Society,that plays the greatest role in technology transfer.
Founded in 1949,the Fraunhofer Society is now Europe's largest organisation for
applied technology,and has 59 institutes employing 12,000 people.It continues to grow.
Last year,it swallowed up the Heinrich Hertz Institute for Communication Technology in
Berlin.Today,there are even Fraunhofers in the U.S. and Asia.
What factor can be attributed to German prosperity? A:Technology transfer. B:Good management. C:Hard work. D:Fierce competition.
答案:A
解析:



8. 共用题干 第三篇

Mobile Phones : Are They about to Transform Our Lives?

We love them so much that some of us sleep with them under the pillow,yet we are
increasingly concerned that we cannot escape their electronic reach.We use them to
convey our most intimate secrets,yet we worry that they are a threat to our privacy.We
rely on them more than the Internet to cope with modern life,yet many of us don't believe
advertisements saying we need more advanced services.
Sweeping aside the doubts that many people feel about the benefits of new third
generation phones and fears over the health effects of phone masts(天线竿),a recent
report claims that the long-term effects of new mobile technologies will be entirely positive so
long as the public can be convinced to make use of them. Research about users of mobile
phones reveals that the mobile has already moved beyond being a mere practical
communications tool to become the backbone(支柱)of modern social life,from love affairs
to friendship to work.One female teacher,32,told the researchers:"I love my phone.It's
my friend."
The close relationship between user and phone is most pronounced among teenagers,
the report says,who regard their mobiles as an expression of their identity.This is partly
because mobiles are seen as being beyond the control of parents.But the researchers
suggest that another reason may be that mobiles,especially text messaging,are seen as a
way of overcoming shyness."Texting is often used for apologies,to excuse lateness or to
communicate other things that make us uncomfortable,"the report says.The impact of
phones,however,has been local rather than global,supporting existing friendships and
networks,rather than opening users to a new broader community.Even the language of
texting in one area can be incomprehensible to anybody from another area.
Among the most important benefits of using mobile phones,the report claims,will be a
vastly improved mobile infrastructure(基础设施),providing gains throughout the economy,
and the provision of a more sophisticated location-based services for users.The report calls
on government to put more effort into the delivery of services by mobile phone,with
suggestions including public transport and traffic information and doctors' text messages to
remind patients of appointments."I love that idea,"one user said in an interview."It would
mean I wouldn't have to write a hundred messages to myself."
There are many other possibilities.At a recent trade fair in Sweden,a mobile
navigation product was launched.When the user enters a destination,a route is
automatically downloaded to their mobile and presented by voice,pictures and maps as they
drive. In future , these devices will also be able to plan around congestion(交通堵塞)and
road works in real time.Third generation phones will also allow for remote monitoring of
patients by doctors. In Britain scientists are developing an asthma(哮喘)management
solution,using mobiles to detect early signs of an attack.
Teenagers have a close relationship with their mobile phones partly because they A:use text messages more than any other group. B:are more likely to be late than older people. C:tend to feel uncomfortable in many situations. D:take mobile phones as an indication of independence from their parents.
答案:D
解析:



9. 共用题干 第一篇

Trying to Find a Partner

One of the most striking findings of a recent pol!in the UK is that of the people
interviewed,one in two believes that it is becoming more difficult to meet someone to start a
family with.
Why are many finding it increasingly difficult to start and sustain intimate relationships?
Does modern life really make it harder to fail in love?Or are we making it harder for
ourselves?
It is certainly the case today that contemporary couples benefit in different ways from
relationships.Women no longer rely upon partners for economic security or status.A man
doesn't expect his spouse to be in sole charge of running his household and raising his children.
But perhaps the knowledge that we can live perfectly well without a partnership means
that it takes much more to persuade people to abandon their independence.
In theory,finding a partner should be much simpler these days,Only a few generations
ago, your choice of soulmate(心上人)was constrained(限制)by geography, social convention
and family tradition.Although it was never explicit,many marriages were essentially
arranged.
Now those barriers have been broken down.You can approach a builder or a brain
surgeon in any bar in any city on any given evening.When the world is your oyster(牡蛎),
you surely have a better chance of finding a pearl.
But it seems that the old conventions have been replaced by an even tighter constraint:
the tyranny of choice.
The expectations of partners are inflated(提高)to an unmanageable degree: good looks,
impressive salary,kind to grandmother,and right socks:There is no room for error in the
first impression.
We think that a relationship can be perfect.If it isn't,it is disposable.We work to
protect ourselves against future heartache and don't put in the hard emolional labor needed
to build a strong relationship.Of course,this is complicated by realities.The cost of
housing and child-rearing creates pressure to have a stable income and career before a life
partnership.
Which of the following is NOT true about a contemporary married couple? A:The wife doesn't have to raise the children all by herself. B:The husband doesn't have to support the family all by himself. C:The wife is no longer the only person to manage the household. D:They will receive a large sum of money from the government.
答案:D
解析:



10. 共用题干 第三篇

Mobile Phones : Are They about to Transform Our Lives?

We love them so much that some of us sleep with them under the pillow,yet we are
increasingly concerned that we cannot escape their electronic reach.We use them to
convey our most intimate secrets,yet we worry that they are a threat to our privacy.We
rely on them more than the Internet to cope with modern life,yet many of us don't believe
advertisements saying we need more advanced services.
Sweeping aside the doubts that many people feel about the benefits of new third
generation phones and fears over the health effects of phone masts(天线竿),a recent
report claims that the long-term effects of new mobile technologies will be entirely positive so
long as the public can be convinced to make use of them. Research about users of mobile
phones reveals that the mobile has already moved beyond being a mere practical
communications tool to become the backbone(支柱)of modern social life,from love affairs
to friendship to work.One female teacher,32,told the researchers:"I love my phone.It's
my friend."
The close relationship between user and phone is most pronounced among teenagers,
the report says,who regard their mobiles as an expression of their identity.This is partly
because mobiles are seen as being beyond the control of parents.But the researchers
suggest that another reason may be that mobiles,especially text messaging,are seen as a
way of overcoming shyness."Texting is often used for apologies,to excuse lateness or to
communicate other things that make us uncomfortable,"the report says.The impact of
phones,however,has been local rather than global,supporting existing friendships and
networks,rather than opening users to a new broader community.Even the language of
texting in one area can be incomprehensible to anybody from another area.
Among the most important benefits of using mobile phones,the report claims,will be a
vastly improved mobile infrastructure(基础设施),providing gains throughout the economy,
and the provision of a more sophisticated location-based services for users.The report calls
on government to put more effort into the delivery of services by mobile phone,with
suggestions including public transport and traffic information and doctors' text messages to
remind patients of appointments."I love that idea,"one user said in an interview."It would
mean I wouldn't have to write a hundred messages to myself."
There are many other possibilities.At a recent trade fair in Sweden,a mobile
navigation product was launched.When the user enters a destination,a route is
automatically downloaded to their mobile and presented by voice,pictures and maps as they
drive. In future , these devices will also be able to plan around congestion(交通堵塞)and
road works in real time.Third generation phones will also allow for remote monitoring of
patients by doctors. In Britain scientists are developing an asthma(哮喘)management
solution,using mobiles to detect early signs of an attack.
It is suggested that mobile phones should be used to A:give the address of the nearest hospital. B:show bus and train timetables. C:arrange delivery of mails. D:cure diseases.
答案:B
解析:




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